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Newt Love: How The Strong Survive

Lakhota Glossary

Words and Phrases used in the novel

American Indian: Usually spelled as "nDn." A term preferred by Red Nations peoples to "Native American." See Native American

ancient earth tongue: A language spoken by all animals and some humans

BATF: The US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms

Bear medicine: A spiritual state in Lakhota mysticism accompanied by the sensation of immense weight and power, and tactile sensations of enlarged hands, feet, and body size. This medicine is granted by the Subordinate God Hunonpa.

BHA: Butylated hydroxyanisole - A white, waxy phenolic antioxidant, C11H16O2, used to preserve fats and oils, especially in foods.

BHT: Butylated hydroxytoluene – A crystalline phenolic antioxidant, C15H24O, used to preserve fats and oils, especially in foods

BIA: The US Bureau of Indian Affairs

Black Road: Lakhota mysticism reference to a path that runs figuratively east to west, and is a road of treachery, misery and pain.

Si·ha·sa·pa (Blackfoot): A branch of the Dakhota Nation, referred to as Sioux, especially the people constituting a subdivision of the Teton Sioux.

Chunumpa: A sacred pipe used in Lakhota ceremonies, sometimes called a peace pipe

Circadian: A cyclic biological period of 24 hours

circle of winds: A Lakhota term for the four compass directions, north, east, south, and west

Dakhota: The original branch of the Dakhota Nation, referred to as Sioux, especially the Santee.

Earth Mother: The Lakhota name for the aspect of God that relates to the feminine side of creation and birth, manifested as the Superior God Maka.

FDA: The US Food and Drug Administration

Fetish: An object that is believed to have magical or spiritual powers

geodesic dome: A domed or vaulted structure of lightweight straight elements that form interlocking polygons

Ghost Dance: Either of two group dances associated with a messianic religious movement among Red Nations peoples of the Southwest and Great Plains in the late 19th century. The Ghost dance prophets foretold the imminent disappearance of whites, the restoration of traditional lands and ways of life, and the resurrection of dead ancestors.

Grandfather: One of many Lakhota reference names for God.

Great Father: One of many Lakhota reference names for God.

Great Plains: A vast grassland region of central North America extending from the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba southward to Texas.

Great Spirit: One of many Lakhota reference names for God, specifically the unification of all of the aspects of God.

Han: Lakhota woman's greeting, used like the English word "hello."

Hanksi: Lakhota male reference to a younger female cousin

Hau: Lakhota man's greeting, used like the English word "hello."

Hooker's green: A green pigment consisting of Prussian blue mixed with gamboge.

Horsemint: A Lakhota remedy for muscle pain

Iktomi: The Trickster, son or Inyan. The Lakhota name for the aspects of God that pertain to randomness in outcomes.

Inipi: The sacred rite of sweat lodge purification

Inyan: The Rock, the Lakhota name for the aspect of God that pertains to the primal element of Stone.

Iron dog: A translation of the Lakhota word for automobile or car

Lakhota: A branch of the Dakhota Nation, referred to as Sioux, especially the Osage and Teton.

Mahto: The Lakhota word for bear, often used as or part of a name

Mahto Paha, or Paha Mahto: Sacred Mountain of the Bear. A solitary hill rising 1300 feet above the North Dakota plain, about eight miles from the Black Hills, that looks like a bear laying on its side with its head to the northeast. For thousands of years, Lakhota, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and people from more than thirty other nations traveled there to receive spiritual guidance.

Mahtochikla: A diminutive term for someone named Mahto, like Johnny is to John

make meat: A translation of the Lakhota term for hunting food animals

medicine bundle: A small pouch of herbs and possibly small personal items. Similar in religious use to Catholic's prayer beads.

Mitakuye Oyasin: Lakhota for "all my relations," signifying that we are all children of the Creator, Wakan Tanka

nadewisou: Ojibwa word for "by the twisting river," that they used to refer to the Dakhota Nation. The French shortened it to Sioux

Nakhota: A branch of the Dakhota Nation, referred to as Sioux, especially the Yankton and Yanktonai tribes.

Native American: An academic term that is offensive to some Red Nations people. AMERIGO VESPUCCI (b. 1451) was the Italian navigator who gave his name to two continents. How can any member of the over 2,000 indigenous nations of the northern continent be called "native" to an European-based place-name? Every survey of the Red Nations has shown an overwhelming preference for the word "Indian." Many of the Red Nations have adopted the spelling of "nDn" to distinguish them from "Indian" which refers to the inhabitants of a country in southern Asia covering most of the Indian subcontinent.

Ojibwa: A Red Nation people originally located north of Lake Huron before moving westward in the 17th and 18th centuries into Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, western Ontario, and Manitoba, with later migrations onto the northern Great Plains in North Dakota, Montana, and Saskatchewan.

Osage orange: A dioecious spiny tree (Maclura pomifera) native to Arkansas and Texas and having pulpy, inedible, orange-like multiple fruit.

Osage Nation: The Osage people formerly inhabiting western Missouri and later southeast Kansas, with a present-day population in north-central Oklahoma.

Pemmican: dehydrated food strips made from mixed ground meat, mashed fruit, salt, and spices

peta-owihankeshni: Lakhota for "the fire of no end," which is the burning power of God that drives the universe.

Paiute: Either of two distinct Red Nation peoples occupying either eastern Oregon, western Nevada, and adjacent areas of northeast California (the Northern Paiute), or southern Utah and Nevada, northern Arizona, and adjacent areas of southeast California (the Southern Paiute).

Pine Ridge Rez: One of the Oglala Tribe reservations, Pine Ridge, located in South Dakota, is 2,000,000 acres large with a population of approximately 20,000. Economically, it is the poorest of the reservations.

Red Nations: The preferred name for the collective group of over 2,000 indigneous nations of the North American continent.

Red Road: Lakhota mysticism reference to a path that runs figuratively north to south, and is a path of peace, a good road.

sacred hoop: A translation for the Lakhota word for the sky

seer: One who sees visions, a prophet

Sicesi:Lakhota female reference to an older male cousin

Sioux: the Ojibwa word nadewisou, shortened by the French to Sioux

Skan: Lakhota mysticism reference to God's power. The sky is full of it for us to breathe and purify our hearts and minds. Hence, the color of skan is blue.

sky-children of the Great Father: The Dakhota Nation, and all of its tribes are descended from the first-ones, who came from the stars.

Standing Rock Rez: The Standing Rock reservation, thirty-four miles south of Mandan, ND, is home to the (Lakhota) Teton and Yankton Bands of the Dakhota Nation. The total land area of the Standing Rock is 2.3 million acres (1.4 million acres tribally owned). The adjoining reservations of Standing Rock and Cheyenne River were at the center of the 1890 Ghost Dance movement. Standing Rock was home to Sitting Bull, whose murder by Indian police sparked a panic that led ultimately to the massacre at Wounded Knee.

star-child: See sky-children

Stone Dreamer: A student of Stone Dreaming, a mystic tradition of the Dakhota Nation, especially the Lakhota, where the mind and spirit are slowed to attune to the thoughts and prayers of the Stone people.

Stone People: Lakhota mysticism holds that everything in the universe has a soul, and therefore is a person in a nation. Stones are the oldest things on earth, and so the souls of the stones are the most ancient and wise people on earth. They can teach the dreamer to derive power from every part of the universe.

Sun Dance: A mystic religious ceremony widely practiced among the Red Nations, especially the Lakhota/Dakhota. It is typically marked by several days of sleepless fasting and group dancing, often including ritualized self-torture, as in penance or to induce a trance or vision.

Sweetgrass: Traditional Sweet Grass is used in virtually every sacred ceremony of the Plains Indians. Burned as incense, it emits a very pleasant fragrance. The rising smoke symbolizes the purification of the people's hopes, needs and oneness with all things to the Great Spirit Wakan Tanka.

Taku Skanskan: The Power Spirit. The Lakhota name for the aspect of God that pertains to movement, strength, and spiritual power.

tatanka: The Lakhota word for a male buffalo (a bull, North American English "bison").

Tate: The Wind. The Lakhota name for the aspect of God that pertain to Wind.

Lodge of the Thunder Beings: The Lakhota name for the dwelling of the aspect of God that manifests themselves as the kindred and subordinate spirits resposnible for thunder, lightning, rain, sleet, and hail.

Tunçila: The Lakhota word for grandfather, frequently used as one of the many Lakhota reference names for God.

Wakan Tanka: The Lakhota words for "the great mystery." One of many Lakhota reference names for God, specifically the unification of all of the aspects of God.

Wakinyan: The Wind. the Lakhota name for the aspect of God that pertains to the primal element of Wind.

Wasiçiu: The Lakhota for "fat stealer," used to mean white society. The use of the word began in the early days of Red Nation internment, when BIA executives and workers lived in luxury, enhanced by stealing from the impoverished Red Nations.

Wicasa Wakan: A compound Lakhota term for a priest and healer that also studies the deeper points of Lakhota mysticism and philosophy.

Windsongs: The musical stories sung by Tate to the trees. The songs the Tall Brother tribes dance to.

Wovaka: The name of the Paiute seer that brought the Ghost Dance revival the Lakhota/Dakhota Nation.

Lakhota Moon: Gregorian calendar equivalent and aliases

wiote hika wi: "Hard Winter moon" – January, a.k.a. Strong Cold, Frost in Tipi, and Wolves Run Together

canna popa wi: "Popping Trees moon" – February, a.k.a. Raccoon, and Dark Red Calves

ista wica niyan wi: "Snow Blindness moon" – March, a.k.a. Buffalo Cows Drop Calves, and Sore Eye

peji to wi: "Tender Grass moon" – April, a.k.a. Greening Grass, and Red Grass Appearing

can wape to wi: "Green Leaves moon" – May, a.k.a. Ponies Shedding

wipa zunka waste wi: "June Berries moon" – June, a.k.a. Making Fat, Green Grass Is Up, and Strawberry

canpa sa wi: "Red Cherries moon" – July, a.k.a. Ripe Wild Cherries, and Red Blooming Lilies

wa suton wi: "Ripening moon" – August, a.k.a. Geese Shed Feathers, and Cherries turn black

can wape gi wi: "Colored Leaves moon" – September, a.k.a. Drying Grass, Black Calf, and Scarlet Plums

can wape kasna wi: "Falling Leaves moon" – October, a.k.a. Falling Leaves, and Changing Seasons

wani yetu wi: "Starting Winter moon" – November, a.k.a. Stream Stops Flowing

wani cokan wi: "Middle Winter moon" – December, a.k.a. Popping Trees, Deer Drop Horns, and Calf Grows Inside


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